September 12 Draft of the Constitution
On Saturday, September 8, 1787, the Constitutional Convention appointed members to
the Committee of Style and Arrangement. The
Committee was tasked with taking the August 6
draft and editing it to include all points decided by the Convention, and
to polish the document into something to be presented to the Congress and the
States. The members of the committee, including Alexander Hamilton, James
Madison, and Gouvernour Morris, worked over the weekend and over the next few
days to turn the various decisions and debates into a finished document. On
September 12, 1787, William Johnson, delegate from Connecticut, presented the
final draft to the Convention. The draft, with only a few more adjustments,
became the Constitution we have today.
The following text was taken from Madison's
Notes from the Convention as supplied by The Avalon
Project. The notes presented here have been slightly modified. For example,
Roman numerals were converted to Arabic numbers and abbreviations were
We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union,
to establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common
defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to
ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the
United States of America.
Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a
Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of
Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen
every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each
state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous
branch of the state legislature.
No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age
of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall
Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several
states which may be included within this Union, according to their respective
numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free
persons, including those bound to servitude 
for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other
persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the
first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent
term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of
representatives shall not exceed one for every forty thousand , but each state shall have at least one
representative. And until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New
Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island
and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey
four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North
Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the Executive
authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.
The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers;
and they shall have the sole power of impeachment.
Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators
from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years. And each
senator shall have one vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first
election, they shall be divided, by lot , as
equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first
class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second
class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the
expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second
year. And if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess
of the Legislature of any state, the Executive thereof may make temporary
appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature. 
No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age of
thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall
not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be
The Vice-President of the United States shall be ex officio  President of the senate, but shall have no vote,
unless they be equally divided.
The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro
tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise the
office of President of the United States.
The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting
for that purpose, they shall be on oath . When
the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside.
And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the
Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal
from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust
or profit under the United States. But the party convicted shall nevertheless
be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according
Section 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for senators
and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature
thereof. But the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting
shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a
Section 5. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a
quorum to do business. But a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and
may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner,
and under such penalties as each house may provide.
Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings; punish its members
for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a
Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time
publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require
secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question
shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the
Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of
the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that
in which the two houses shall be sitting.
Section 6. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for
their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the
United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of
the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of
their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for
any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other
No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have
been increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the
United States, shall be a member of either house during his continuance in
Section 7. The enacting style of the laws shall be, "Be it enacted by the
senators and representatives in Congress assembled."  All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the
house of representatives. But the senate may propose or concur with amendments
as on other bills.
Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives and the
senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the
United States. If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it,
with his objections to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall
enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it.
If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the
bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by
which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that
house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses
shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for
and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house
respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten
days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same
shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by
their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.
Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and
House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment)
shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same
shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him,
shall be repassed by three-fourths of the Senate and House of Representatives,
according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.
Section 8. The Congress may by joint ballot appoint a treasurer.  They shall have power
To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises; to pay the debts and
provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States.
To borrow money on the credit of the United States.
To regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the several states, and
with the Indian tribes.
To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States.
To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the
standard of weights and measures.
To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current
coin of the United States.
To establish post offices and post roads.
To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited
times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings
To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court.
To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and
punish  of fences against the law of
To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules
concerning captures on land and water.
To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall
be for a longer term than two years.
To provide and maintain a navy.
To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval
To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union,
suppress insurrections and repel invasions.
To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for
governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United
States, reserving to the States respectively, the appointment of the officers,
and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline
prescribed by Congress.
To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such
district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular
States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of
the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by
the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the
erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful
To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into
execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this
constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or
Section 9. The migration or importation of such persons as the several
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the
Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or
duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each
The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless
when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
No bill of attainder shall be passed, nor any ex post facto law.
No capitation  tax shall be laid, unless
in proportion to the census  herein before
directed to be taken.
No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 
No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of
appropriations made by law .
No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States. And no person
holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of
the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind
whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
Section 10. No state shall coin money, nor emit bills of credit, nor make
any thing but gold or silver coin a tender in payment of debts, nor pass any
bill of attainder, nor ex post facto laws, nor laws altering or impairing the
obligation of contracts; nor grant letters of marque and reprisal, nor enter
into any treaty, alliance, or confederation, nor grant any title of
No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay imposts or duties on
imports or exports, nor with such consent, but to the use of the treasury of
the United States. Nor keep troops nor ships of war in time of peace, nor enter
into any agreement or compact with another state, nor with any foreign power.
Nor engage in any war, unless it shall be actually invaded by enemies, or the
danger of invasion be so imminent, as not to admit of delay until the Congress
can be consulted .
Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a president of the United
States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and,
together with the vice-president, chosen for the same term, be elected in the
following manner :
Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may
direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of senators and
representatives to which the state may be entitled in Congress, but no senator
or representative shall be appointed an elector, nor any person holding an
office of trust or profit under the United States .
The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for
two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state
with themselves . And they shall make a list
of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list
they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the general
government , directed to the president of the
senate. The president of the senate shall in the presence of the senate and
house of representatives open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be
counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the president,
if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if
there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of
votes, then the house of representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one
of them for president; and if no person have a majority, then from the five
highest on the list the said house shall in like manner choose the president.
But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states and not per
capita , the representation from each state
having one vote. A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members
from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the president by the
representatives , the person having the
greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the vice-president. But if
there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the senate shall choose
from them by ballot the vice-president.
The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the time
in which  they shall give their votes; but
the election shall be on the same day 
throughout the United States.
No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States,
at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be eligible to the
office of president; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who
shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen
years a resident within the United States.
In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his death,
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said
office, the same shall devolve on the vice-president, and the Congress may by
law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of
the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as
president, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be
removed, or the period for choosing another president arrive .
The president shall, at stated times, receive  a fixed compensation for his services, which shall
neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have
Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following
oath or affirmation: "I —, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will
faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will to
the best of my judgment and power , preserve,
protect and defend the constitution of the United States."
Section 2. The president shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of
the United States, and of the militia of the several States. He may require the
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive
departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective
offices, when called into the actual service of the United States , and he shall have power to grant reprieves and
pardons for of fences against the United States, except in cases of
He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to
make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators present concur; and he shall
nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint
ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court,
and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein
otherwise provided for .
The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen
during the recess of the senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at
the end of their next session.
Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of
the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as
he shall judge necessary and expedient. He may, on extraordinary occasions,
convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between
them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time
as he shall think proper. He shall receive ambassadors and other public
ministers. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall
commission all the officers of the United States.
Section 4. The president, vice-president and all civil officers of the
United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction
of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.
Section 1. The judicial power of the United States, both in law and equity
, shall be vested in one supreme court, and
in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and
establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold
their offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for
their services, a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their
continuance in office.
Section 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, both  in law and equity, arising under this constitution,
the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under
their authority. To all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and
consuls. To all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction. To controversies
to which the United States shall be a party. To controversies between two or
more States; between a state and citizens of another state; between citizens of
different States; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under
grants of different States, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and
foreign States, citizens or subjects.
In cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and
those in which a state shall be party, the supreme court shall have original
jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and
under such regulations as the Congress shall make.
The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury;
and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been
committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such
place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.
Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying
war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.
No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two
witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no
attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood nor forfeiture, except
during the life of the person attainted.
Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public
acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress
may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and
proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
Section 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges
and immunities of citizens in the several states. A person charged in any state
with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found
in another state, shall on demand of the executive authority of the state from
which he fled be delivered up, and removed to the state having jurisdiction of
No person legally held to service or labor in one state, escaping into
another, shall in consequence of regulations subsisting therein be discharged
from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to
whom such service or labor may be due. 
Section 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but
no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other
state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts
of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as
well as of the Congress.
The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and
regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United
States, and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice
any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.
Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a
Republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion;
and on application of the legislature or executive , against domestic violence.
The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem necessary, or on
the application of two-thirds of the legislatures of the several states, shall
propose amendments to this constitution, which shall be valid to all intents
and purposes, as part thereof, when the same shall have been ratified by
three-fourths at least of the legislatures of the several states, or by
conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of
ratification may be proposed by the Congress, provided, that no amendment which
may be made prior to the year 1808 shall in any manner affect the — and
— section of — article .
All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of
this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this
Constitution as under the confederation.
This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in
pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the
authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the
judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or
laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.
The senators and representatives beforementioned, and the members of the
several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of
the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or
affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be
required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United
The ratification of the conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for
the establishment of this constitution between the States so ratifying the
The following footnotes indicate the significant differences between this
draft of the Constitution and the final draft. Some
minor differences, and differences in punctuation, are not noted.
1. "Servitude": the final draft uses "Service".
2. "Forty thousand": the final draft uses "thirty
3. "By lot": the final draft omits these words.
4. The final draft adds the words "which shall then fill
5. "Ex officio": the final draft omits these words.
6. The final draft adds the words "or Affirmation".
7. The final draft adds the words "except as to the Place
of Chusing Senators".
8. "The enacting style of the laws shall be, 'Be it enacted
by the senators and representatives in Congress assembled.'": final draft omits
9. "The Congress may by joint ballot appoint a treasurer.":
final draft omits these words.
10. The final draft adds the words "but all Duties,
Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States".
11. "Punish": the final draft omits this word.
12. The final draft adds the words "or other direct".
13. The final draft adds the words "or Enumeration".
14. The final draft adds this clause: "No Preference shall
be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State
over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be
obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another."
15. The final draft adds the words "and a regular
Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money
shall be published from time to time."
16. The final draft reorders the details of this
17. The final draft replaces this clause with these two
"No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties
on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing
it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by
any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the
United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul
of the Congress.
"No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any duty of Tonnage, keep
Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact
with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually
invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay."
18. "In the following manner": the final draft uses "as
19. The final draft reorders the words in the restrictive
20. "Shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with
themselves": the final draft uses the words "shall not lie an Inhabitant of the
same State with themselves".
21. "General government": the final draft uses the words
"Government of the United States".
22. "And not per capita": the final draft omits these
23. "By the representatives": the final draft omits these
24. "And the time in which": the final draft uses the
words "and the Day on which".
25. "But the election shall be on the same day": the final
draft uses the words "which Day shall be the same".
26. "Or the period for choosing another president arrive":
the final draft uses the words "or a President shall be elected".
27. "A fixed compensation ... have been elected": the
final draft uses the words "for his Services, a Compensation, which shall
neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have
been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument
from the United States, or any of them".
28. "Judgment and power": the final draft uses the word
29. "When called into the actual service of the United
States": the final draft moves these words to follow "Militia of the several
30. The final draft adds the words "and which shall be
established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such
inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts
of Law, or in the Heads of Departments."
31. "Both in law and equity": the final draft omits these
32. "Both": the final draft omits this word.
33. "No person legally held... may be due.": the final
draft uses this clause: "No Person held to Service or Labour in one State,
under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law
or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, But shall be
delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be
34. The final draft adds the words "(when the Legislature
cannot be convened)".
35. This Article was revised and expanded. See Article 5.