Article 5 of the Constitution provides for the
amendment of the Constitution by various means (see The
Amendments Page for details). However an amendment is proposed, it does
not become part of the Constitution unless it is ratified by three-quarters of
the states (either the legislatures thereof, or in amendment conventions). The
following is a record of each ratified amendment and the states and dates that
led to the ratification. The Constitutional
Timeline and the Ratification Grid may also
be of interest.
There is some disagreement about the ability of a state to rescind an
amendment ratification prior to full ratification. In U.S. history, thus far,
no rescinded ratifications have made a difference in the long run, though
they certainly have happened, especially to the Reconstruction Amendments,
13 through 15. On this page, only dates of first ratification
are listed. States that never accepted an amendment are not
listed at all.
In each table, the "*" column will contain a * symbol next to the state that
provided the required three-quarters vote for ratification. Note that the
number of states required for ratification increased through history - some
amendments, then, required more states at the time of ratification than they
needed at the time of proposal.
* Mississippi ratified the amendment in 1995, but the state didn't
officially notify the US Archivist until 2012, when the ratification finally became official.
This amendment was specifically rejected by Delaware on Feb 8, 1865; by
Kentucky on Feb 24, 1865; by New Jersey on Mar 16, 1865; and by Mississippi on
Dec 4, 1865. Florida reaffirmed its ratification on Jun 9, 1868.
This amendment was specifically rejected by Texas on Oct 27, 1866; by
Georgia on Nov 6, 1866; by North Carolina on Dec 14, 1866; by South Carolina
on Dec 20, 1866; by Kentucky on Jan 8, 1867; by Virginia on Jan 9, 1867; by
Louisiana on Feb 6, 1867; by Delaware on Feb 8, 1867; and by Maryland on Mar
23, 1867. New Jersey's ratification was rescinded on Mar 24, 1868; Ohio
rescinded its ratification on Jan 15, 1868 and ratified again on Mar 13,
This amendment was specifically rejected by Kentucky on Mar 12, 1869; by
Delaware on Mar 18, 1869; by Ohio on Apr 30, 1869; by Tennessee on Nov 16,
1869; by California on Jan 28, 1870; by New Jersey on Feb 7, 1870; and by
Maryland on Feb 26, 1870. New York rescinded its ratification on Jan 5, 1870,
and rescinded the rescission on Mar 30, 1970.
This amendment was specifically rejected by Georgia on Jul 24, 1919; by
Alabama on Sep 22, 1919; by South Carolina on Jan 28, 1920; by Virginia on Feb
12, 1920; by Maryland on Feb 24, 1920; by Mississippi on Mar 29, 1920; by
Delaware on Jun 2, 1920; and by Louisiana on Jul 1, 1920.
Illinois reaffirmed its ratification on Jun 17, 1919; Connecticut reaffirmed
its ratification on Sep 21, 1920. Maryland's ratification was not certified
until Feb 25, 1958. South Carolina's ratification was not certified until Aug